Tuesday, 29 November 2011

to principal-for starting music classes.

Q) You are Radha, monitor of VIIth A in Rampal model school. Write a letter to your principal for starting music classes.

The principal
Rampal model school,
Bhajanpura, Delhi.

Subjectà To start music classes.

Respected sir,
            I am student of VIIth A. My roll no is 19. I am the class monitor. We are learning music for last 2 years. But this year we have no music classes as our music teacher has been transferred to another school. In his absence we are unable to practice. All our hard work will go in vain. Zonal music competition is near.
Kindly arrange for a new music teacher and oblige.

Thanking you
Yours obediently 

Saturday, 26 November 2011

Simple, compound and complex sentences

As I discussed in my earlier blog sentence and its types, sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense. Sentence has a subject and a predicate. These are actually simple sentences. To make our writing effective, it is essential to understand how to combine simple sentences. Before that it is necessary to understand what are simple, compound and complex sentences? This is the subject of this post.

A)    Simple sentenceà
Simple sentences have only one subject and one predicate.
Examplesà (Subjects are underlined)
1)      Rajkumar was waiting for the right time.
2)      Market was decorated for the festival.
3)      My mother gave me some money to purchase sweets.
4)      In the evening a fox entered in our home.
5)      Thirsty crow sat on the branch of a tree.

B)     To understand compound and complex sentences we have to first learn clauses.
Clauses are group of words which make some sense, are part of a sentence and have its own subject and predicate.

C)    Compound sentenceà
If a sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank, it is called compound sentences.
For exampleà I went to market and Ramesh came to my house.
In this compound sentence two clauses are
1)      I went to market.
2)      Ramesh came to my house.
Both these sentences are independent, that is, not dependent on each other for their meaning.
Noteà such independent clauses are called principal or main clause.
Examples à
1)      Night fell and we went to bed.
2)      You do it now or you do it never.
3)      God made the man and we made the caste.
4)      India has surplus grain but many people are starving.
5)      He went abroad because he wanted to succeed.

D)    Complex sentenceà Complex sentences are also (like compound sentences) consists of two or more clauses, but only one of them is principal clause and others are subordinate clauses (as they depend on principal clause for their meaning.)
Examplesà (principal /main clauses are underlined).
1)      The went to my house when party ended.
2)        He is more intelligent than I am.
3)       No body knows who they are.
4)      Our guest arrived when night came.
5)      He could not find a place where he could sleep. 

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

Types of clauses (practice)-2

Before doing this exercise it is better first to read Clauses and its types

Q) Identify Noun, adjective, and adverb, clauses in the following sentences.

1)      They jumped into the river which was very deep.
2)      He wrote the book when he was twenty year old.
3)      The house where he was born is broken now.
4)      He works hard so that he can secure first position again.
5)      That you pass the exam makes me glad.
6)      They put the model that was rejected twice earlier.
7)      I reached where temperature was below 0 C
8)      I can’t allow what you are saying.
9)      This is the man who planted the bomb.
10)  You can call me whenever you like.
11)  What you have proposed, No one can accept.
12)  I knew every person that was present in the meeting.
13)  He sits alone where no one can see him.
14)  He ate whatever he got.
15)  I love robots because they never question.

1)      Which was very deepàadjective
2)      When he was twenty year oldà adverb.
3)      Where he was bornà adjective.
4)      So that he can secure first position againà adverb.
5)      That you pass the examà Noun.
6)      That was rejected twice earlierà adjective.
7)      Where temperature was below 0 Cà adverb.
8)      What you are sayingà Noun.
9)      Who planted the bombà adjective
10)  Whenever you likeà adverb.
11)  What you have proposedà Noun.
12)  That was present in the meetingàadjective
13)  Where no one can see himà adverb
14)  Whatever he gotà Noun.
15)  Because they never questionà adverb.

For further practice see Types of clauses (practice)-1

Types of clauses (practice)-1

Before doing this exercise it is better first to read Clauses and its types

Q) Identify Noun, adjective and adverb, clauses in the following sentences.

1)      Because you broke the glass you are punished.
2)      We reached the market which was famous for jewelers.
3)      I know the man who lives on the top floor.
4)      He prayed that he could save the child.
5)      The shop which is next to my house is now closed.
6)      I can guess what you are looking for.
7)      Cattle reached home when night fell.
8)      He married the girl he loved.
9)      Sidhartha left house when all were asleep.
10)  He respected the man who gave him chance.
11)  I know how to do this job.
12)  He broke the wall as if it was made of paper.
13)  I never thought that thief would break into my house.
14)  I purchased a shirt that was red in color.
15)  He read the book after the exams were over.

1)      Because you broke the glassà adverb
2)      Which was famous for jewelersàadjective.
3)      Who lives on the top floorà adjective
4)      That he could save the childà Noun.
5)      which is next to my houseà adjective
6)      What you are looking forà Noun.
7)      When night fellà adverbs.
8)      He lovedà adjective.
9)      When all were asleepà adverb.
10)  Who gave him chanceà adjective
11)  How to do this jobà Noun.
12)  As if it was made of paperà adverb.
13)  That thief would break into my houseà Noun.
14)  That was red in colorà adjective.
15)  After the exams were overà adverb.

For further practice see Types of clauses (practice)-2

Clauses and its types

Clauses are important to understand and to analyze a compound or complex sentence. Moreover, one can write compact and effective sentences with the better understanding of clauses. This lesson focuses on types of clauses. In the end link for practice exercises is included.

A)    Definitionà

Clauses is a group of words which is part of a sentence, make some sense and has its         own subject and predicate
Clauses are not used as independent sentences they are always part of a sentence. Clauses are different from phrases in that phrases do not have their own subject and predicate.

B)     Types of clausesà
Clauses are of three types
1)      Noun clauses.
2)      Adjective clauses.
3)      Adverb clauses.

C)    Noun clausesà
A clause which does the work of a noun is called noun clause.
Noun clause is identified by attaching “what” with the verb.

Examplesà (Noun clauses are underlined).
1)      That he opposed my proposal was the biggest surprise for me.(What was the biggest surprise for me?)
2)      I wish that you will win the competition. (what does I wish ?).
3)      Everybody knows that Sachin is the best. ( Everybody knows what ?).
4)      I want to know what his name is. (I want to know what?).
5)      Do you know that Ram was innocent? (Do you know?... what?)

D)    Adjective clauseà
A clause which does the work of an adjective is called adjective clause.
Adjective clause can be identified by attaching “which” with the noun.

Exampleà (adjective clauses are underlined)
1)      The house which has green paint is mine.( which house?)
2)      The dog that barks seldom bites. (Which dog?).
3)      People who die for country never die (which die?).
4)      I know the place where robbers hide themselves. (Which place?).
5)      I have a dog whose tail is very long.( which dog).

E) Adverb clause à
A clause which does the work of an adverb is called adverb clause.
Adverb clause is identified by attaching “why”, “How”, “when”, “where” with the verb.
Example à (adverb clauses are underlined).
1)      He learnt swimming when summer came. (Learnt when?)
2)      I reached where you told. (Reached where?).
3)      They finished the work as I told them. (Finished how?).
4)      Doctor arrived when patient had died. (Arrived when?).
5)      Ramesh explained the project just as our science teacher did. (Explained how?).

Do following exercises to understand clauses better.

Monday, 21 November 2011

Phrases and its type (practice)-2

Before doing this exercise you would like to read Phrases and its type

Q) Underline the phrases in following sentences. Also tell their types.

1)      Cow was grazing in my filed.
2)      Reading story books is my hobby.
3)      He is a student of great promise.
4)      He has a Job full of challenges.
5)      He promised to work hard next time.
6)      They finished the work in no time.
7)      Ramayan is a book of sacrifice and righteousness.
8)      Fresh green sceneries were food for eyes.
9)      Once in his college time he fought an election.
10)  She purchased a bracelet of silver.
11)  He secured the first position in the class.
12)  They entered into a crowded lane.
13)   Miners worked on war footing.
14)  Collecting old coins is his hobby.
15)  He supports me in all difficult times.

1)      In my fieldà Adverb phrase.
2)      Reading story booksà Noun phase.
3)      Of great promise à Noun phase.
4)      Full of challengesà Adjective phrases.
5)      To work hard next timeà  Noun phase.
6)      In no time à adverb noun.
7)      Of sacrifice and righteousnessà adjective phrases
8)      Fresh green sceneriesà .Noun phrases.
9)      Once in his college time à adverb noun.
10)  Of silverà adjective phrases.
11)  The first position in the classà Noun phrases.
12)  Into a crowded lane à adverb noun.
13)  On war footingà adverb noun.
14)   Collecting old timesà Noun phrases.
15)  In all difficult timesà adverb noun.

see also Phrases and its type (practice)-1

Phrases and its type (practice)- 1

Before doing this exercise you would like to read Phrases and its type

Q) Underline the phrases in the following sentences. Also tell their types.

1)      He learnt horse riding in summer vacation.
2)      To work honestly is our duty.
3)      He purchased a car with red color.
4)      Dilip singh my next door neighbor is a cruel man.
5)      You should not behave in such a manner.
6)      He ordered a table made of fine wood.
7)      An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
8)      She hanged a painting on the wall.
9)      Karisma, the great magician, arrived in our city.
10)   He pushed the stone out of the way.
11)  He brought a bear with silky hair.
12)  Meeting your promise is sign of integrity.
13)  He stopped for a while as tea stall.
14)  All salute the rising sun.
15)  Once upon a time a monkey lived in the forest.


1)      Summer vacation à Adverb phrase.
2)      To work honesty. à Noun phrase.
3)      With red colorà Adjective phrase.
4)      My next door neighbor à Adjective phrase.
5)      In such a mannerà Adverb phrase.
6)      Made of fine woodà Adjective phrase.
7)      An apple a dayà Noun phrase.
8)      On the wall à Adverb phrase.
9)      The great magicianà Adjective phrase
10)  Out of the wayà  adverb phrase.
11)  With silky hair à Adjective phrase
12)  Meeting your promise à Noun phrase
13)  For a whileà adverb phrase.
14)  The rising sun à Noun phrase
15)  Once upon a time à Adverb phrases.

for further practice see phrase and its types(practice)-2

Phrases and its types

  How to identify a phrase
A)               Definition

Phrase is a group of words with some meaning but not complete meaning.
It is unlike sentence which has subject, predicate and complete meaning.
It is unlike clause which has its own subjects and predicate, although not complete meaning.

Examine following sentences. Phrases are underlined.

1)      Sudhir went to the school.
2)      He get up early in the morning.
3)      He expected to be recognized.
4)      He behaved in very rude way.
5)      Playing cricket is good for health.
6)       He doesn’t want to fail again.
7)      To make his son doctor is his lifelong desire.
8)      I enjoyed reading this blog.

(B) Phrases are of three types.

1) Noun phrase.
2) Adjective phrase.
3) Adverb Phrases.

(C) Noun phrasesà
If a phrase does the work of noun, it is called noun phrase.

We can identify the noun clause by asking the questions “what”.
1)      Reading books was his hobby. (What was his hobby?).
2)      He wishes to win the race. (What does he wish?)
3)      Eating too much food is not good for health. (What is not good for health?)
4)      He loves to tease the animals. (What does he love?)
5)      He was eager to know the result. (For what he was eager).

(D) Adjective phraseà
If a phrase does the work of adjective, it is called adjective phrase.

1)      He is a man of great potential.
2)      She wore a dress of pink color
3)      He is a boy with grey hair.
4)      Queen wore a necklace of diamond.
5)      It is a throne full of thorns.
Adverb phrase à
If a phrase does the work of adverb, it is called adverb phrase.
We can identify the adverb clause by asking the questions ‘where?’, ‘when?’ and ‘How?’ with the verb.

1)      Cat jumped from the roof. (Jumped from where?)
2)      She cleaned the house in the hurry. (How did she clean the house?)
3)      He came to my place in the evening. (When did he come?)
4)      He drove the car with very high speed. (How did he drive the car?).
5)      She presented her case in very decent manner. (How did she present her case?).

for practice visit
phrase and its types(practice)-1
phrase and its types(practice)-2

Subject and predicate (pratice-2)

Before doing this exercise you would like to read subject and predicate.

Q) Identify subjects and predicate in following sentences
1)      Ganga is a holy river of India.
2)      Metro life is full of tensions.
3)      All living organisms are divided into five kingdoms.
4)      Children are future of a society.
5)      A truck collided with a car.
6)      Our bus passed through a thick jungle.
7)      Natural resources are gift given by nature.
8)      About 70% of Earth surface is covered with water.
9)      The old wall collapsed in heavy rain.
10)  Honesty is the best policy.
11)  Ram and Shyam are fast friends.
12)  Time management is nothing but self management.
13)  Books are our best guides.
14)  Education is the best insurance.
15)  Rome was not built in a day.


1)      Subjectà Ganga.
2)      Subjectà Metro life.
3)      Subjectà All living organisms.
4)      Subjectà Children.
5)      Subjectà A truck.
6)      Subjectà Our bus.
7)      Subjectà Natural resources.
8)      Subjectà About 70% of earth surface.
9)      Subjectà The old wall
10)  Subjectà Honesty.
11)  Subjectà Ram and shyam.
12)  Subjectà Time managements.
13)  Subjectà Books.
14)  Subjectà Education.
15)  Subjectà Rome.

see also subject and predicate (practice)-1

Subject and predicate (pratice-1)

Before doing this exercise you would like to read subject and predicate.

Q) Identify subjects and predicate in following sentences.

1)      you should not afraid of exams
2)      The great emperor ruled this land one.
3)      Tropical forests are the lungs of earth.
4)      The man in black suit is a cop.
5)      This advertisement lacks a catch line.
6)      He fought tooth and nail for justice.
7)      Human beings share this earth with other organisms.
8)      God never left his devotee alone.
9)      Education is means of salvation.
10)  A good teacher never preaches.
11)  Slow but steady wins the race.
12)  My grandfather is the most loving person on this earth.
13)  A hundred miles journey starts with a single step.
14)  Thirsty crow sat on branch of a tree.
15)  A bird in hand is better than two in bush.


1)      Subjectà You.
2)      Subjectà the great emperor.
3)      Subjectà Tropical forests.
4)      Subjectà the man in black suit.
5)      Subjectà the advertisement.
6)      Subjectà He.
7)      Subjectà Human beings.
8)      Subjectà God.
9)      Subjectà Education.
10)  Subjectà A good teacher.
11)  Subjectà Slow but steady.
12)  Subjectà My grandfather.
13)  Subjectà A hundred miles Journey.
14)  Subjectà Thirsty crow
15)  Subjectà A bird in hand.

for further practice see
subject and predicate (practice)-2

Subjects and predicate

In the analysis of a sentence first step is to divide it into two parts- subject and predicate. Therefore it is important to understand this simple concept.

Subject à
In a sentence subjects is a noun, pronoun or noun clause about which something is said or which does something. In other words a subject of a sentence is a doer or something is stated about it.
For Example in a sentence “Ram is an honest boy” subject is “Ram” because something (That he is an honest boy) is stated about him.

Predicate à
Rest of the sentence (other than subject) is called predicate. In the above example predicate is “is an honest boy”. Thus predicate includes verb and object of the verb.

Examine following sentences
Is my classmate.
Is our duty
Was built by Sahajahan
Was grazing in the field
Won the match again
Mahatma Gandhi
Is our national father
Want to became a doctor
Were coming from the  forest

In Imperative Sentences Subject is omitted or we can say subject is understood.
1) Sit down. {Subject “you” is understood}

2) open your bag {subject “you” is understood}

Usually sentence starts with a subject. But sometimes it is placed after the predicate.
Here comes the great magician.
Noteà understanding a concept in a better way needs practice. For which you can visit